The picturesque river Neman flows through the territory of Russia, Lithuania and Belarus. Many cities sprawled on its shores. And one of them is Grodno which is located almost near the border with Poland and Lithuania. Known since the time of the “The Tale of Igor’s Campaign”, it has always been a major center of commerce, crafts, and arts; It was also the capital of the principalities, and the regional center. Now Grodno is also the administrative center of the region, an important intersection of transport routes and an interesting tourist site.
You can cross the State border of the Republic of Belarus with the Republic of Poland at the checkpoints:
with the Republic of Lithuania at checkpoints:
On the banks of the Neman one of the most picturesque rivers in Europe, the ancient Grodno city has been standing for 900 years. The long city history is rich and diverse of events. The city was founded by Eastern Slavs in XII century . The first mention of the city refers to 1127/1128.
At the end of the XIII century. Ancient Goroden became an important political, cultural and social center, as well as a major handicraft and trading city of Eastern Europe.
But especially the importance of Grodno increased in the second part of fourteenth century, when the city was already part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Grand Duke Vitovt founded his personal residence here and moved his capital. The capital status of Grodno retained several centuries.
After the Union of Lublin in 1569 Grodno became part Rzeczpospolita. From the XVI to XVIII centuries was one of its most important political and social-cultural centers.
After the third partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1795, it became part of the Russian Empire. 1801 it became the center of the Grodno province.
The accession to the Russian Empire and the inclusion of Grodno in the All-Russian market contributed to the further development of the city’s economy. In 1803 was completed reconstruction of the Oginsky Canal, which connected the basins of the Dnieper and the Neman. Grodno pier became one of the largest of the Neman banks.
On June 28, 1812, during the Russian-French War of 1812, the right wing troops of the Great Army of Napoleon Bonaparte entered Grodno. In general the Catholic community of the city welcomed the arrival of French troops. Who promised to restore the independence of the Lithuanian principality. The defeat of the Great Army of Napoleon in the war of 1812 against Russia marked the beginning of the collapse of the European empire of Napoleon I.
After the abolition of serfdom in Russia in 1861, Grodno developed as one of the largest industrial centers of the North-Western region.
During the First World War, it was occupied by the troops of Kaiser Germany. Under the terms of the Treaty of Riga from 1921 to 1939. was part of Poland and was the center of of Belostok province.
The Second World War for Grodno began in the autumn of 1939. In the same year, the unification of Western and Eastern Belarus took place, and the city became part of the unified Belarusian state.
And yet in 1944 Grodno became the center of the Grodno region
Today Grodno is one of the oldest cities in Belarus located on the banks of the Neman River. In the former Soviet Union it was widely known for its memorials, historical landmarks, monuments, theaters, churches and museums. In addition to its high cultural value for the country, Grodno is one of the largest industrial centers of the western region of Belarus.
Unlike other cities of Belarus, Grodno has preserved most of the historical buildings.
The historic center of the city covers an area of 300 hectares and is a monument of town planning and history. Grodno is the only city in Belarus in which the outlines of the historical center have remained unchanged. The historical center of Grodno is an architectural monument of the 18th — 19th centuries. The town-planning composition of the center was formed taking into account the natural landscape – hills, floodplains of rivers and ravines.